Fundamental Concepts and Definitions: Introduction and definition of thermodynamics, Dimensions and units, Microscopic and Macroscopic approaches, Systems, surroundings and universe, Concept of continuum, Control system boundary, control volume and control surface, Properties and state, Thermodynamic properties, Thermodynamic path, process and cycle, Thermodynamic equilibrium, Reversibility and irreversibility, Quasi static process, Energy and its forms, Work and heat. Zeroth law of thermodynamics: Zeroth law of thermodynamics, Temperature and its’ measurement, Temperature scales.
First law of thermodynamics: Thermodynamic definition of work, Thermodynamic processes, Calculation of work in various processes and sign convention, Non-flow work and flow work, Joules’ experiment, First law of thermodynamics, Internal energy and enthalpy, First law of thermodynamics applied to open systems, Steady flow systems and their analysis, Steady flow energy equation, Boilers, Condensers, Turbine, Throttling process, Pumps etc. First law analysis for closed system (non flow processes), Analysis of unsteady processes such as filling and evacuation of vessels with and without heat transfer, Limitations of first law of thermodynamics, PMM-I.
Second law: Devices converting heat to work, Thermal reservoir, Heat engines, Efficiency, Devices converting work to heat, Heat pump, refrigerator, Coefficient of Performance, Reversed heat engine, Kelvin Planck statement of second law of thermodynamics, Clausius statement of second law of thermodynamics, Equivalence of two statements of second law of thermodynamics, Reversible and irreversible processes, Carnot cycle and Carnot engine, Carnot theorem and it’s corollaries, thermodynamic temperature scale, PMM-II.
Entropy: Clausius inequality, Concept of Entropy, Entropy change in different thermodynamic processes, Tds equation, Principle of entropy increase, T-S diagram, Statement of the third law of thermodynamics.
Availability and Irreversibility: Available and unavailable energy, Availability and Irreversibility, Second law efficiency, Helmholtz & Gibb’s function.
Properties of steam and thermodynamics cycles: Pure substance, Property of steam, Triple point, Critical point, Sub-cooled liquid, Saturation states, Superheated states, Phase transformation process of water, Graphical representation of pressure, volume and temperature, P-T & P-V diagrams, T-S and H-S diagrams, use of property diagram, Steam-Tables & Mollier charts, Dryness factor and it’s measurement, processes involving steam in closed and open systems. Simple Rankine cycle.